To get started, I will do a quick introduction and recap looking at the pros and cons of Espresso and XCUI Test and how they are compared against Appium.
So with that, we can get started. So what is Espresso? Espresso is a free and fast native framework for UI testing for Android applications. It is baked right into Android's software development kit and integrated into Android studios.
It does offer an Espresso test recorder so you can run one UI test case and be able to automatically generate a corresponding UI test from that test case. The pros of Espresso is that it's fast. Specifically fast for Android testing. So it's deeply integrated with Android.
So offers clear failure reporting and provides rich debugging information right within your Android studio code. It has a core API that small and compact, it make tests easily to maintain change, and customize. And then it has a seamless UI synchronization that also makes tests less flaky and more intuitive with assertions. And you can easily integrate your Espresso scripts into CI/CD pipeline.
Some drawbacks of Espresso might include that you are looking at only one-half of the devices and platforms widely used by the market, so it's not compatible with iOS devices.
It is also limited to only the Java and JUnit languages and UI testing mainly. So it doesn't quite offer much of a solution for additional testing, such as unit testing or integration testing. And then although the test recorder is offered, it's only a basic knowledge of how apps are built and how to create tests for those apps.
So it's definitely built with more of the Android developer in mind, more of the quality engineer in mind.